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HYDRUS ——水流和溶质运移的模拟软件

7月31日-8月2日在北京举办Hydrus模型应用高级培训班,由Dr. Jirka Simunek和陈卫平老师主讲,内容包括HYDRUS-1D,Hydrus 2D/3D模型的理论基础和应用,欢迎大家报名参加。报名及详情【点击了解】


Hydrus 2D/3D V2.04新版本功能介绍如下:
1. 新增HYPAR模块。HYPAR模块是Hydrus 2D/3D标准版计算模块的并行版本。
2. 新增Slope模块。这个模块可分析一般分层的2D土壤边坡的稳定性,包括使用从Hydrus的结果中自动导入孔隙压力对存在的水量进行建模。
3. 在线反激活不再需要密码了。
4. Hydrus软件可自动检验到是否有更新,并且会通知用户进行更新。

HYDRUS是一个运行于Windows系统下的环境模拟软件,主要用于变量饱和多孔介质的水流和溶质运移。HYDRUS包括用于模拟变量饱和多孔介质下的水、热和多溶质运移的二维和三维有限元计算,包括一个参数优化算法,用于各种土壤的水压和溶质运移参数的逆向估计。该模型互动的图形界面,可进行数据前处理、结构化和非结构化的有限元网格生成以及结果的图形展示。
HYDRUS一共五个版本,用户可以选择最适合自己版本。用户可以选择局限于一般功能的二维应用(2D-Standard版本,与之前含有MeshGen-2D的Hydrus-2D功能一致)或者二维和三维应用(如3D-Standard 或3D-Professional)。用户也可以选择相对简单的(二维直角几何图形—3D-Lite, 与之前不含MeshGen-2D的Hydrus-2D功能一致)或三维的几何立体图形– 3D-Lite)或更复杂的几何图形(用于普通二维几何图形的2D-Standard或在二维基础上以及分层三维的3D-Standard,以及用于普通三维几何图形的3D-Professional)。用户也可以选择从低版本升级到高版本。

标准计算模型

HYDRUS是模拟变量饱和多孔介质下的水、热和多溶质二维和三维运动的有限元计算模型。HYDRUS数值求解饱和非饱和水流的Richards方程和热传递和溶质运移的对流扩散型方程。 水流方程包含一个下沉期,可导致植物根系吸水。热传递方程考虑了水流传导和对流运动。对流扩散的溶质运移方程的管理是一个非常普遍的形式,包括固体和液态非线性非平衡反应的规定以及液体和气体的线性平衡反应。因此,不管是吸附溶质还是挥发溶质(如杀虫剂)都已经考虑到了。溶质运移方程还包括了零阶生产的影响、其他溶质的独立一级降解以及一阶衰减和生产反应,以便提供连续一级链中溶质间所需的耦合。运移模拟也会引起液相对流和扩散、气相扩散,因此次模型在液态和气态条件下可同时模拟溶质运移。目前HYDRUS最多可考虑15种溶质,在单向链中耦合或溶质间独立运移。物理非平衡溶质运移由双区和双重孔隙公式引起, 并把液相分成移动和不可移动区域。附着和分离理论,包括过滤理论,病毒、胶质和细菌运移的模拟也包含在其中。
HYDRUS可用来分析水质和溶质在非饱和、部分饱和或是饱和多孔介质情况下的运动。HYDRUS可由不规则边界处理水流区域,水流区域本身可能是由非均匀土壤组成具有局部各向异性任意程度。水流和运移可能发生在垂直面,也可能在水平面,具有径向对称性的垂直轴或三维区域。
模型的水流部分可以用来处理连续或时变的规定的方向和流量边界,以及由气象条件控制的边界。土壤表面边界条件在模拟从给定的流量到规定的方向类型条件期间可能会发生变化,反之亦然。它还可以通过水域饱和部分的剩余水量和不排水边界条件处理自由面边界。节点排水是由一个简单的模拟实验关系为代表。
对溶质运移来说,软件既支持连续和变化的规定浓度(Dirichlet或first-type)也支持浓度通量边界(Cauchy或third-type)。弥散张量包含分子扩散和曲折的结果反应影响。
不饱和土壤水文属性是由以下理论总结出来的,1980年的van Genuchten、1964年的Brooks 和Corey、1994年的Durner、1995年的Kosugi和修正的van Genuchten的型解析函数。这些修正内容对接近饱和状态的水利属性做了进一步的描述。HYDRUS软件包含了由1983年Scott et al.以及1987年Kool 和 Parker引进的结合实证模拟的滞变。 这个模型假定干燥扫描曲线是从主要干燥曲线衍生而来的,湿润扫描曲线是从主要湿润曲线衍生而来的。HYDRUS还包括1991年的Lenhard et al.和1992年Lenhard 和 Parker的滞变模型,它通过跟踪历史逆转点从而消除泵。HYDRUS在给定的土壤环境下可实行缩放过程已达到近似液压变化,通过一组线性标度变化工具,涉及个别土壤水力特性与参考土壤的关系。
使用应用到三角元素网络中的Galerkin的线性有限元方法来求解控制方程。饱和和不饱和的状态是通过有限差分格式集成实现的。结果方程是以迭代方式求解的,通过线性化和随后的高斯消元法对带状矩阵、对称矩阵的共轭梯度法或不对称矩阵正交极小化方法。额外的措施来提高瞬态问题的求解效率,包括自动时间步调整和确保Courant和 Peclet数字不超过预设水平。使用1990年Celia et al.提出的质量守恒法来评估水的含量。减少数值振荡上行重量作为求解运移方程的选项包含在里面。
此外,HYDRUS可执行Marquardt-Levenberg类型参数估计技术为选定的土壤进行水力逆估计或溶质运移以及测量瞬态或稳态流和运移数据(仅在2D版本中)。此过程允许估计几个未知的参数,如观察到的水含量、压头、浓度或瞬时或累积边界通量(如渗透或流出数据)。额外的保留或水力传导率数据以及约束优化的参数补偿函数,约束优化的参数保持在可行域(贝叶斯估计),可包含在参数估计过程中。
一个新的模块模拟地下水流人工湿地的生化转化和降解过程,此模块是为HYDRUS 的二维应用开发的(2005年的Langergraber和Simunek,2009年的Langergraber et al)。 这个模块认为大量的物理、化学和生物过程活跃在湿地,包括生物化学降解和转化过程三组分的有机物质(易降解、慢慢可生物降解和惰性),四氮的化合物(铵、亚硝酸盐、硝酸盐、和双氮)、无机磷、异养和自养微生物,溶氧和/或硫,他们同时活跃而且相互影响。

附加模块

  • UNSATCHem模块主要是用来模拟运移和主要离子的反应。UNSATCHEM模块模拟变饱和多孔介质中主要离子的运移(如钙、镁、钠、钾、SO4、碳酸气和Cl),包括主要离子平衡和非平衡化学反应动力学。生成的代码可用于预测土壤在瞬变流动中的主要离子化学、水和溶质通量。 Wetlands模块是用来模拟人工湿地反应的。人工湿地水处理系统的设计能优化自然环境中发现的处理过程。HYDRUS湿地模块包括两个biokinetic模型公式。而在原始湿地CW2D模块中,考虑到了有机物、氮和磷需氧和缺氧的转换和降解过程,以及对新的CWM1模块中需氧、缺氧和厌氧过程的有机物,氮和硫的考虑。
  • DualPerm模块(2.02版本及以上)用于模拟双渗透多孔介质中二维可变饱和水运动和溶质运移,即优先和非平衡水分和溶质运移。
  • C-Ride模块(2.02版本及以上)用于模拟经常发生的强烈吸附污染物的二维胶体的溶质运移,(如如重金属、放射性核素、制药、农药、炸药),主要与固相关联,通常认为它们是静止不动的,但也可以吸附移动胶体粒子(例如微生物、腐殖物质、悬浮粘土颗粒和金属氧化物),可以作为污染物的载体,从而为这些污染物提供一个快速的运移途径。
  • HP2模块(2.02版本及以上)综合了HYDRUS(其二维部分)与PHREEQC地球化学代码[1999年的Parkhurst和Appelo]开发了这个新综合仿真工具(HP2—HYDRUS-PHREEQC-2D缩写),主要是区别于一个类似的一维模块HP1。这个模块可以考虑各种混合平衡/动力生物地球化学反应。
  • HYPAR是标准二维和三维HYDRUS计算模块的并行版本。(h2d_calc.exe and h3d_calc.exe) HYPAR使用并行计算工具和技术来有效利用多核以及多处理器计算机的优势并且显著加快耗时的模拟,尤其是那些需要大量的有限元素
  • Slope Stability Slope Classic附加模块的目的主要用于堤防的稳定性检查,水坝,削减地球和固定挡板结构。水的影响建模使用孔隙压力的分布,这是进口自动从水蛇座指定时间的结果。每个时间步的水分布可以分别进行分析。 SLOPE Cube(Slope Stress and Stability)附件模块是由科罗拉多矿业大学的Ning Lu博士合作开发的。它使用一个统一的有效应力方法饱和和不饱和的条件。这个模块的目的是用来预测infiltration-induced滑坡启动和开展variably-saturated土壤条件下的边坡稳定性分析。

图形用户界面

一个基于微软Windows图形用户界面(GUI)管理的运行HYDRUS的输出需求,以及网格设计和编辑、参数配置、问题执行和结果可视化。HYDRUS还包括一组控件,允许用户创建一个流和运移模型,并对运行中的图形进行分析。使用空间和横截面查看和线图来检查输入和输出。HYDRUS图形用户界面的主程序单元定义了系统整体的计算环境。这个主模块控制程序的执行并确定哪些其他可选的工具是必要的。该模块还包含一个项目管理器和两个预处理和后处理单元。预处理单元包括所有必要的参数规格,如成功运行HYDRUS FORTRAN语言代码、相对简单的矩形和六面体传输域的网格生成器、用于非结构化有限元网格的复杂二维和三维域的网格生成器、一个小目录的土壤水力属性和从土壤结构数据的Rosetta Lite程序生成土壤水力属性。

自动生成有限元网格

数据预处理涉及二维流动区域规范,具有任意形状连续的折线、圆弧、样条函数、域边界的离散化和一个非结构化的有限元网格的下一个版本。HYDRUS(标准版)带有一个可选的网格生成程序,Meshgen可以生成一个非结构化有限元网格的二维域。HYDRUS基于Delaunay推论,已经被无缝集成到HYDRUS环境里了。在没有Meshgen程序的情况下,HYDRUS GUI提供了一个简单、结构化网格的自动构建选项(Lite版本)。三维版本是在Lite和Standard版本下添加了指定的相同或不同厚度的层数。HYDRUS 3D专业版有一个三维网格生成程序(GENEX和T3D),为通用三维域生成非结构化有限元网格。

后处理

输出图形包括水含量、流速、浓度、温度在空间或横断面视图的2D等高线(等值线或彩色光谱)。图形输出还包括速度矢量图、彩色边缘、颜色的点、连续的时间步的图形显示和动画以及选定的边界或内部截面线图。用户可以将感兴趣的区域缩放,横截面视图的垂直刻度也可以放大。网格还可以展示边界和编号的三角形、边缘和点。观察点可以添加到网格的任何地方。网格和/或空间分布结果(压力头、水含量、速度、浓度和温度)的视图都使用高分辨率彩色或灰阶值。界面还包括一个内容丰富的在线帮助菜单。

域和有限元网格区域

为了简化复杂的运移几何图形的工作,这些图形可以划分为简单的部分称为Section. 只有这些简单的部分可以在视图窗口中显示,而剩下的部分被隐藏。一共有两种类型的Section:基于几何对象的和基于有限元网格的。可以同时显示多个section。使用各种命令可以切断和隐藏不需要的运移区域部分。

系统要求

操作系统

Windows XP / Windows Vista (32 or 64bit) / Windows 7 (32 or 64bit) / Windows 8 (32 or 64bit)
2 GHz X86 CPU
2 MB RAM
10 GB的硬盘空间,至少500 MB 的安装空间
分辨率1024 x 768 像素

推荐系统配置

使用HYDRUS 3D的模型,推荐的系统配置为:
操作系统Windows 7 (32-bit或64-bit)
3GHz或更高的多核CPU
4 GB RAM (64-bit系统8GB)
500 GB 硬盘空间
HYDRUS is a Microsoft Windows based modeling environment for the analysis of water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. The software package includes computational finite element models for simulating the two- and three-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably saturated media. The model includes a parameter optimization algorithm for inverse estimation of a variety of soil hydraulic and/or solute transport parameters. The model is supported by an interactive graphics-based interface for data-preprocessing, generation of structured and unstructured finite element mesh, and graphic presentation of the results.
HYDRUS is distributed in five different versions (Levels) so that users may acquire only that segment of the software that is most appropriate for their application. Users can select software limited to general two-dimensional applications (the 2D-Standard Level, which corresponds with former Hydrus-2D with MeshGen-2D) or for both two- and three-dimensional applications (i.e., 3D-Standard or 3D-Professional). Users can also opt for relatively simple (two-dimensional rectangular geometries – 2D-Lite [which corresponds with former Hydrus-2D without MeshGen-2D] or three-dimensional hexahedral geometries – 3D-Lite) or more complex geometries (i.e., 2D-Standard for general two-dimensional geometries, 3D-Standard for problems that can be defined using the general two-dimensional base and a layered third dimension, or 3D-Professional for applications with general three-dimensional geometries). Users may upgrade to higher Levels from lower Levels, as well as from lower versions (e.g., version 1.x) to higher versions (e.g., version 2 (and higher - in the future)).

Standard Computational Models

The HYDRUS program is a?finite element model for simulating the?two-?and?three-dimensional?movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably saturated media. The HYDRUS program numerically solves the Richards equation for saturated-unsaturated water flow and convection-dispersion type equations for heat and solute transport. The?flow equation?incorporates a?sink term to account for water uptake by plant roots. The?heat transport?equation considers movement by conduction as well as convection with flowing water. The governing convection-dispersion?solute transport equations?are written in a?very general form by including provisions for nonlinear nonequilibrium reactions between the solid and liquid phases, and linear equilibrium reaction between the liquid and gaseous phases. Hence, both adsorbed and volatile solutes, such as pesticides, can be considered. The solute transport equations also incorporate the effects of zero-order production, first-order degradation independent of other solutes, and first-order decay/production reactions that provide the required coupling between the solutes involved in the sequential first-order chain. The transport models also account for convection and dispersion in the liquid phase, as well as diffusion in the gas phase, thus permitting the model to simulate solute transport simultaneously in both the liquid and gaseous phases. At present, HYDRUS considers up to fifteen solutes, which can either be coupled in a?unidirectional chain or move independently of each other. Physical nonequilibrium solute transport can be accounted for by assuming a?two-region, dual porosity type formulation, which partitions the liquid phase into mobile and immobile regions.?Attachment/detachmenttheory, including the filtration theory, is included to simulate transport of viruses, colloids, and/or bacteria.
The program may be used to analyze water and solute movement in unsaturated, partially saturated, or fully saturated porous media. HYDRUS can handle flow domains delineated by irregular boundaries. The flow region itself may be composed of nonuniform soils having an arbitrary degree of local anisotropy. Flow and transport can occur in the vertical plane, the horizontal plane, a three-dimensional region exhibiting radial symmetry about a vertical axis, or in a three-dimensional region.
The water flow part of the model can deal with (constant or time-varying) prescribed head and flux boundaries, as well as boundaries controlled by atmospheric conditions. Soil surface boundary conditions may change during the simulation from prescribed flux to prescribed head type conditions (and vice versa). The code can also handle a seepage face boundary, through which water leaves the saturated part of the flow domain, and free drainage boundary conditions. Nodal drains are represented by a simple relationship derived from analog experiments.
For solute transport, the code supports both (constant and varying) prescribed concentration (Dirichlet or first-type) and concentration flux (Cauchy or third-type) boundaries. The dispersion tensor includes a term reflecting the effects of molecular diffusion and tortuosity.
The unsaturated soil hydraulic properties are described using van Genuchten [1980], Brooks and Corey [1964], Durner [1994], Kosugi [1995], and modified van Genuchten type analytical functions. Modifications were made to improve the description of hydraulic properties near saturation. The HYDRUS code incorporates hysteresis by using the empirical model introduced by Scott et al. [1983] and Kool and Parker [1987]. This model assumes that drying scanning curves are scaled from the main drying curve, and wetting scanning curves from the main wetting curve. As an alternative, we also incorporated the hysteresis model of Lenhard et al. [1991] and Lenhard and Parker [1992], which eliminates pumping by keeping track of historical reversal points, into HYDRUS. HYDRUS also implements a scaling procedure to approximate hydraulic variability in a given soil profile by means of a set of linear scaling transformations that relate the individual soil hydraulic characteristics to those of a reference soil.
The governing equations are solved numerically using a Galerkin type linear finite element method applied to a network of triangular elements. Integration in time is achieved using an implicit (backwards) finite difference scheme for both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The resulting equations are solved in an iterative fashion, by linearization and subsequent Gaussian elimination for banded matrices, a conjugate gradient method for symmetric matrices, or the ORTHOMIN method for asymmetric matrices. Additional measures are taken to improve solution efficiency in transient problems, including automatic time step adjustment and ensuring that the Courant and Peclet numbers do not exceed preset levels. The water content term is evaluated using the mass-conservative method proposed by Celia et al. (1990). To minimize numerical oscillations upstream weighing is included as an option for solving the transport equation.
In addition, HYDRUS implements a Marquardt-Levenberg type parameter estimation technique for the inverse estimation of selected soil hydraulic and/or solute transport and reaction parameters from measured transient or steady-state flow and/or transport data (only in 2D). The procedure permits several unknown parameters to be estimated from observed water contents, pressure heads, concentrations, and/or instantaneous or cumulative boundary fluxes (e.g., infiltration or outflow data). Additional retention or hydraulic conductivity data, as well as a penalty function for constraining the optimized parameters to remain in some feasible region (Bayesian estimation), can be included in the parameter estimation procedure.
A new module simulating the biochemical transformation and degradation processes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands was developed for two-dimensional applications of HYDRUS (Langergraber and Simunek, 2005; Langergraber et al., 2009b). This module considers a large number of physical, chemical and biological processes active in wetlands (including the biochemical degradation and transformation processes for three fractions of organic matter (readily- and slowly-biodegradable, and inert), four nitrogen compounds (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and dinitrogen), inorganic phosphorus, heterotrophic and autotrophic micro-organisms, dissolved oxygen, and/or sulfur) that are simultaneously active and mutually influence each other.

Add-On Modules

  • The UNSATCHem Module for simulating two-dimensional transport and reactions of major ions. The geochemical UNSATCHEM module simulates the transport of major ions (i.e., Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4, CO3, and Cl) in variably-saturated porous media, including major ion equilibrium and kinetic non-equilibrium chemistry. The resulting code is intended for predictions of major ion chemistry and water and solute fluxes in soils during transient flow
  • The DualPerm Module (in version 2.02 and higher) for simulating two-dimensional variably-saturated water movement and solute transport in dual-permeability porous media, i.e., preferential and nonequilibrium water flow and solute transport.
  • The C-Ride Module (in version 2.02 and higher) for simulating two-dimensional colloid-facilitated solute transport, which often occurs for strongly sorbing contaminants (e.g., heavy metals, radionuclides, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives) that are associated predominantly with the solid phase, which is commonly assumed to be stationary, but which can also sorb/attach to mobile colloidal particles (e.g., microbes, humic substances, suspended clay particles and metal oxides) that can act as pollutant carriers and thus provide a rapid transport pathway for these contaminants.
  • The HP2 Module (in version 2.02 and higher), which couples Hydrus (its two-dimensional part) with the PHREEQC geochemical code [Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999] to create this new comprehensive simulation tool (HP2 - acronym for HYDRUS-PHREEQC-2D), corresponding to a similar one-dimensional module HP1. This module can consider various mixed equilibrium/kinetic biogeochemical reactions.
  • The HYPAR Module (in version 2.04 and higher) is a parallelized version of the standard two-dimensional and three-dimensional HYDRUS computational modules (h2d_calc.exe and h3d_calc.exe). HYPAR uses PPL (Parallel Patterns Library), and thus it can be used on multi processor shared memory computers (PCs with multi-core (dual-core, quad-core) processors). HYPAR currently supports only calculations in the direct mode (does not support the inverse mode), and it does not support any add-on modules (e.g., HP2, UnsatChem, Wetland, and/or C-Ride).
  • The Slope Classic Module (in version 2.04 and higher) is intended to be used mainly for stability checks of embankments, dams, earth cuts and anchored sheeting structures. The influence of water is modeled using the distribution of pore pressure, which is imported automatically from the HYDRUS results for specified times. Each time step of water distribution can be analyzed separately. The slip surface is considered as circular (and is evaluated using the Bishop, Fellenius/Petterson, Morgenstern-Price or the Spencer method).

Graphical User Interface

A Microsoft Windows based Graphical User Interface (GUI) manages the inputs required to run HYDRUS, as well as grid design and editing, parameter allocation, problem execution, and visualization of results. The program includes a?set of controls that allows the user to build a?flow and transport model, and to perform graphical analyses on the fly. Both input and output can be examined using spatial or cross-sectional views and line graphs. The main program unit of the?HYDRUS Graphical User Interface?defines the overall computational environment of the system. This main module controls execution of the program and determines which other optional tools are necessary for a?particular application. The module contains a?project manager and both the pre-processing and post-processing units. The pre-processing unit includes specification of all necessary parameters to successfully run the HYDRUS FORTRAN codes, grid generators for relatively simple rectangular and hexahedral transport domains, a?grid generator for unstructured finite element meshes for complex two- and three-dimensional domains, a?small catalog of soil hydraulic properties, and a?Rosetta Lite program for generating soil hydraulic properties from soil textural data.

Automatic FE-Mesh Generation

Data preprocessing involves specification of the two-dimensional flow region having an arbitrary continuous shape bounded by polylines, arcs, and splines, discretization of domain boundaries, and subsequent generation of an unstructured finite element mesh. HYDRUS (Standard Levels) comes with an optional mesh generation program, Meshgen, which generates an unstructured finite element mesh for two-dimensional domains. This program, based on the Delaunay triangulation, is seamlessly integrated into the HYDRUS environment. In the absence of the Meshgen program, the HYDRUS GUI provides an option for automatic construction of simple, structured grids (Lite Levels). The third dimension is developed in both the?Lite?and?Standardlevels by adding specified number of layers of equal or different thicknesses. HYDRUS?3D-Professional?comes with a?tree-dimensional mesh generation programs (GENEX and T3D), which generate an unstructured finite element mesh for general three-dimensional domains.

Post-Processing

Output graphics include 2D contours (isolines or color spectra) in spatial or cross-sectional view for heads, water contents, velocities, concentrations, and temperatures. Output also includes velocity vector plots, color edges, color points, animation of graphic displays for sequential time-steps, and line-graphs for selected boundary or internal sections. The post-processing unit also includes simple x-y graphics for a?graphical presentation of soil hydraulic properties, as well as such output as distributions versus time of a?particular variable at selected observation points, and actual or cumulative water and solute fluxes across boundaries of a?particular type. Areas of interest can be zoomed in on, and the vertical scale can be enlarged for cross-sectional views. The mesh can be displayed with boundaries, and numbering of triangles, edges and points. Observation points can be added anywhere in the grid. Viewing of grid and/or spatially distributed results (for pressure heads, water contents, velocities, concentrations, and temperatures) is facilitated using high resolution color or gray scales. An extensive and context-sensitive online Help is part of the interface.

Domain and FE-Mesh Sections

To simplify the work with complex transport geometries, these can be divided into simpler parts, called Sections. Only these simpler parts can then be displayed in the View Window, while the remaining parts can be hidden. Two types of sections exist: those for geometric objects and those for the FE-Mesh. Multiple Sections can be displayed simultaneously. Undesired (to be displayed) parts of the transport domain can be cut off and hidden from the View window using various commands.

System Requirements

Minimum System Requirements:

  • Operating Systems:
    • Windows 10 (32 or 64bit)
    • Windows 8 (32 or 64bit)
    • Windows 7 (32 or 64bit)
    • Windows Vista (32 or 64bit)
    • Windows XP
    • Windows 10
  • X86 CPU with 2 GHz
  • 2 MB RAM
  • 10 GB total hard disk capacity with about 500 MB reserved for installation
  • Graphic card with a resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels

Recommended System Configuration:

To use HYDRUS comfortably for calculations of 3D models, we recommend the following system requirements:
  • Operating System Windows 7 (32 or 64bit)
  • Multicore CPU running at 3 GHz or better
  • 4 GB RAM (8 GB for 64bit systems)
  • 500 GB hard disk capacity
  • raphic card with OpenGL hardware acceleration, screen resolution 1600x1200 pixels. Recommended chipsets nVidia or ATI.
16-bit Windows (Win95 and Win98):
HYDRUS runs on these systems, but we do not guarantee error-free functionality of the program when using one of these older operating systems.
64-bit Windows (Windows XP x64, Windows Vista x64)
HYDRUS version 1.05 or later works on x64-bit systems.
  • 中国区典型用户

    • 新疆农业大学
    • 华北水利水电学院
    • 黄河水利科学研究院
    • 兰州大学
    • 北京市环境保护科学研究院
    • 新疆大学
    • 石河子大学
    • 西北农林科技大学
    • 南华大学
    • 北京师范大学
    • 沈阳农业大学
    • 太原理工大学
    • 敦煌研究院
    • 水利部牧区水利科学研究所
    • 华南农业大学
    • 中国地质调查局西安地质调查中心
    • 西安理工大学
    • 中国地质调查局
    • 福州大学
    • 南昌工程学院
    • 苏州科技大学
    • 南昌工程学院
    • 内蒙古农业大学
    • 长江科学院
    • 西安地质调查中心
    • 山西农业大学
    • 浙江省水利河口研究院