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书籍名称:The Mata Book: A Book for Serious Programmers and Those Who Want to Be
出版社:Stata Press
作者: William W. Gould
出版时间:2018-04-08
语种: 英文
页数: 428
印刷日期:2018-04-08
开本: 胶版纸
纸张:428 I S B N: 978-1-59718-263-8
装订: 平装

简介

The Mata Book: A Book for Serious Programmers and Those Who Want to Be is the book that Stata programmers have been waiting for. Mata is a serious programming language for developing small- and large-scale projects and for adding features to Stata. What makes Mata serious is that it provides structures, classes, and pointers along with matrix capabilities. The book is serious in that it covers those advanced features, and teaches them. The reader is assumed to have programming experience, but only some programming experience. That experience could be with Stata's ado-language, or with Python, Java, C++, Fortran, or other similar languages. The book covers Mata, programming, workflow, verification, and certification. As the book says, "being serious is a matter of attitude, not current skill level or knowledge".

目录

    Acknowledgment
    1 Introduction
    1.1 Is this book for me?
    1.2 What is Mata?
    1.3 What is covered in this book
    1.4 How to download the files for this book
    2 The mechanics of using Mata
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Mata code appearing in do-files
    2.3 Mata code appearing in ado-files
    2.4 Mata code to be exposed publicly
    3 A programmer's tour of Mata
    3.1 Preliminaries
    3.1.1 Results of expressions are displayed when not stored
    3.1.2 Assignment
    3.1.3 Multiple assignment
    3.2 Real, complex, and string values
    3.2.1 Real values
    3.2.2 Complex values
    3.2.3 String values (ASCII, Unicode, and binary)
    3.3 Scalars, vectors, and matrices
    3.3.1 Functions rows(), cols(), and length()
    3.3.2 Function I()
    3.3.3 Function J()
    3.3.4 Row-join and column-join operators
    3.3.5 Null vectors and null matrices
    3.4 Mata's advanced features
    3.4.1 Variable types
    3.4.2 Structures
    3.4.3 Classes
    3.4.4 Pointers
    3.5 Notes for programmers
    3.5.1 How programmers use Mata's interactive mode
    3.5.2 What happens when code has errors
    3.5.3 The _error() abort function
    4 Mata's programming statements
    4.1 The structure of Mata programs
    4.2 The program body
    4.2.1 Expressions
    4.2.2 Conditional execution statement
    4.2.3 Looping statements
    4.2.3.1 while
    4.2.3.2 for
    4.2.3.3 do while
    4.2.3.4 continue and break
    4.2.4 goto
    4.2.5 return
    4.2.5.1 Functions returning values
    4.2.5.2 Functions returning void
    5 Mata's expressions
    5.1 More surprises
    5.2 Numeric and string literals
    5.2.1 Numeric literals
    5.2.1.1 Base-10 notation
    5.2.1.2 Base-2 notation
    5.2.2 Complex literals
    5.2.3 String literals
    5.3 Assignment operator
    5.4 Operator precedence
    5.5 Arithmetic operators
    5.6 Increment and decrement operators
    5.7 Logical operators
    5.8 (Understand this ? skip : read) Ternary conditional operator
    5.9 Matrix row and column join and range operators
    5.9.1 Row and column join
    5.9.2 Comma operator is overloaded
    5.9.3 Row and column count vectors
    5.10 Colon operators for vectors and matrices
    5.11 Vector and matrix subscripting
    5.11.1 Element subscripting
    5.11.2 List subscripting
    5.11.3 Permutation vectors
    5.11.3.1 Use to sort data
    5.11.3.2 Use in advanced mathematical programming
    5.11.4 Submatrix subscripting
    5.12 Pointer and address operators
    5.13 Cast-to-void operator
    6 Mata's variable types
    6.1 Overview
    6.2 The forty variable types
    6.2.1 Default initialization
    6.2.2 Default eltype, orgtype, and therefore, variable type
    6.2.3 Partial types
    6.2.4 A forty-first type for returned values from functions
    6.3 Appropriate use of transmorphic
    6.3.1 Use transmorphic for arguments of overloaded functions
    6.3.2 Use transmorphic for output arguments
    6.3.2.1 Use transmorphic for passthru variables
    6.3.3 You must declare structures and classes if not passthru
    6.3.4 How to declare pointers
    7 Mata's strict option and Mata's pragmas
    7.1 Overview
    7.2 Turning matastrict on and off
    7.3 The messages that matastrict produces, and suppressing them
    8 Mata's function arguments
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Functions can change the contents of the caller's arguments
    8.2.1 How to document arguments that are changed
    8.2.2 How to write functions that do not unnecessarily change arguments
    8.3 How to write functions that allow a varying number of arguments
    8.4 How to write functions that have multiple syntaxes
    9 Programming example: n_choose_k() three ways
    9.1 Overview
    9.2 Developing n_choose_k()
    9.3 n_choose_k() packaged as a do-file
    9.3.1 How I packaged the code: n_choose_k.do
    9.3.2 How I could have packaged the code
    9.3.2.1 n_choose_k.mata
    9.3.2.2 test_n_choose_k.do
    9.3.3 Certification files
    9.4 n_choose_k() packaged as an ado-file
    9.4.1 Writing Stata code to call Mata functions
    9.4.2 nchooseki.ado
    9.4.3 test_nchooseki.do
    9.4.4 Mata code inside of ado-files is private
    9.5 n_choose_k() packaged as a Mata library routine
    9.5.1 Your approved source directory
    9.5.1.1 make_lmatabook.do
    9.5.1.2 test.do
    9.5.1.3 hello.mata
    9.5.1.4 n_choose_k.mata
    9.5.1.5 test_n_choose_k.do
    9.5.2 Building and rebuilding libraries
    9.5.3 Deleting libraries
    10 Mata's structures
    10.1 Overview
    10.2 You must define structures before using them
    10.3 Structure jargon
    10.4 Adding variables to structures
    10.5 Structures containing other structures
    10.6 Surprising things you can do with structures
    10.7 Do not omit the word scalar in structure declarations
    10.8 Structure vectors and matrices and use of the constructor function
    10.9 Use of transmorphic with structures
    10.10 Structure pointers
    11 Programming example: Linear regression
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Self-threading code
    11.3 Linear-regression system lr*() version 1
    11.3.1 lr*() in action
    11.3.2 The calculations to be programmed
    11.3.3 lr*() version-1 code listing
    11.3.4 Discussion of the lr*() version-1 code
    11.3.4.1 Getting started
    11.3.4.2 Assume subroutines
    11.3.4.3 Learn about Mata's built-in subroutines
    11.3.4.4 Use of built-in subroutine cross()
    11.3.4.5 Use more subroutines
    11.4 Linear-regression system lr*() version 2
    11.4.1 The deviation from mean formulas
    11.4.2 The lr*() version-2 code
    11.4.3 lr*() version-2 code listing
    11.4.4 Other improvements you could make
    11.5 Closeout of lr*() version 2
    11.5.1 Certification
    11.5.2 Adding lr*() to the lmatabook.mlib library
    12 Mata's classes
    12.1 Overview
    12.1.1 Classes contain member variables
    12.1.2 Classes contain member functions
    12.1.3 Member functions occult external functions
    12.1.4 Members—variables and functions—can be private
    12.1.5 Classes can inherit from other classes
    12.1.5.1 Privacy versus protection
    12.1.5.2 Subclass functions occult superclass functions
    12.1.5.3 Multiple inheritance
    12.1.5.4 And more
    12.2 Class creation and deletion
    12.3 The this prefix
    12.4 Should all member variables be private?
    12.5 Classes with no member variables
    12.6 Inheritance
    12.6.1 Virtual functions
    12.6.2 Final functions
    12.6.3 Polymorphisms
    12.6.4 When to use inheritance
    12.7 Pointers to class instances
    13 Programming example: Linear regression 2
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 LinReg in use
    13.3 LinReg version-1 code
    13.4 Adding OPG and robust variance estimates to LinReg
    13.4.1 Aside on numerical accuracy: Order of addition
    13.4.2 Aside on numerical accuracy: Symmetric matrices
    13.4.3 Finishing the code
    13.5 LinReg version-2 code
    13.6 Certifying LinReg version 2
    13.7 Adding LinReg version 2 to the lmatabook.mlib library
    14 Better variable types
    14.1 Overview
    14.2 Stata's macros
    14.3 Using macros to create new types
    14.4 Macroed types you might use
    14.4.1 The boolean type
    14.4.2 The Code type
    14.4.3 Filehandle
    14.4.4 Idiosyncratic types, such as Filenames
    14.4.5 Macroed types for structures
    14.4.6 Macroed types for classes
    14.4.7 Macroed types to avoid name conflicts
    15 Programming constants
    15.1 Problem and solution
    15.2 How to define constants
    15.3 How to use constants
    15.4 Where to place constant definitions
    16 Mata's associative arrays
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Using class AssociativeArray
    16.3 Finding out more about AssociativeArray
    17 Programming example: Sparse matrices
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 The idea
    17.3 Design
    17.3.1 Producing a design from an idea
    17.3.2 The design goes bad
    17.3.3 Fixing the design
    17.3.3.1 Sketches of R_*x*() and S_*x*() subroutines
    17.3.3.2 Sketches of class's multiplication functions
    17.3.4 Design summary
    17.3.5 Design shortcomings
    17.4 Code
    17.5 Certification script
    18 Programming example: Sparse matrices, continued
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Making overall timings
    18.2.1 Timing T1, Mata R=RR
    18.2.2 Timing T2, SpMat R=RR
    18.2.3 Timing T3, SpMat R=SR
    18.2.4 Timing T4, SpMat R=RS
    18.2.5 Timing T5, SpMat R=SS
    18.2.6 Call a function once before timing
    18.2.7 Summary
    18.3 Making detailed timings
    18.3.1 Mata's timer() function
    18.3.2 Make a copy of the code to be timed
    18.3.3 Make a do-file to run the example to be timed
    18.3.4 Add calls to timer_on() and timer_off() to the code
    18.3.5 Analyze timing results
    18.4 Developing better algorithms
    18.4.1 Developing a new idea
    18.4.2 Aside
    18.4.2.1 Features of associative arrays
    18.4.2.2 Advanced use of pointers
    18.5 Converting the new idea into code sketches
    18.5.0.3 Converting the idea into a sketch of R_SxS()
    18.5.0.4 Sketching subroutine cols_of_row()
    18.5.1 Converting sketches into completed code
    18.5.1.1 Double-bang comments and messages
    18.5.1.2 // NotReached comments
    18.5.1.3 Back to converting sketches
    18.5.2 Measuring performance
    18.6 Cleaning up
    18.6.1 Finishing R_SxS() and cols_of_row()
    18.6.2 Running certification
    18.7 Continuing development
    19 The Mata Reference Manual
    A Writing Mata code to add new commands to Stata
    A.1 Overview
    A.2 Ways to structure code
    A.3 Accessing Stata's data from Mata
    A.4 Handling errors
    A.5 Making the calculation and displaying results
    A.6 Returning results
    A.7 The Stata interface functions
    A.7.1 Accessing Stata's data
    A.7.2 Modifying Stata's data
    A.7.3 Accessing and modifying Stata's metadata
    A.7.4 Changing Stata's dataset
    A.7.5 Accessing and modifying Stata macros, scalars, matrices
    A.7.6 Executing Stata commands from Mata
    A.7.7 Other Stata interface functions
    B Mata's storage type for complex numbers
    B.1 Complex values
    B.2 Complex values and literals
    B.3 Complex scalars, vectors, and matrices
    B.4 Real, complex, and numeric eltypes
    B.5 Functions Re(), Im(), and C()
    B.6 Function eltype()
    C How Mata differs from C and C++
    C.1 Introduction
    C.2 Treatment of semicolons
    C.3 Nested comments
    C.4 Argument passing
    C.5 Strings are not arrays of characters
    C.6 Pointers
    C.6.1 Pointers to existing objects
    C.6.2 Pointers to new objects, allocation of memory
    C.6.3 The size and even type of the object may change
    C.6.4 Pointers to new objects, freeing of memory
    C.6.5 Pointers to subscripted values
    C.6.6 Pointer arithmetic is not allowed
    C.7 Lack of switch/case statements
    C.8 Mata code aborts with error when C would crash
    D Three-dimensional arrays (advanced use of pointers)
    D.1 Introduction
    D.2 Creating three-dimensional arrays
    References
    Author index
    Subject index